A beginner's guide to Seed Multiplication Process
Seed Multiplication Process
In addition to being one of the oldest professions in the world and providing employment to billions of people globally, Agriculture also forms the backbone of the global economy. Recognised as primary occupation, Agriculture has played a pivotal role in sustenance and growth of life on this earth. By definition, Agriculture involves cultivation of land and breeding of animals but is primarily recognised as the chief provider of food, fibre, herbs, fruits, grains and various other food products. Farming forms an integral part of agriculture and employs more than two billion people around the world, majorly in Asia.
Farming requires some basic components to be accomplished successfully. The major inputs required for farming are: -
- Suitable Land
- Suitable Weather
- Steady supply of Water
- Pesticides and Insecticides
- Farming Equipment
- Harvesting Equipment
Out of all the inputs mentioned above, Vegetables seeds form the core of farming all around the world. Though a seed might seem like a small input, but the quality of seed has the major impact on the quality and quantity of all crops. For instance, quality of F1 Hybrid Cucumber Seeds or F1 Hybrid Okra Seeds used will determine the quality of crop harvested by a farmer.
In scientific terms, seed is described as a basic agricultural input which is an embryo embedded in a food storage tissue which is surrounded by a protective coat of seed. Seeds play a crucial role in the life of a farmer and have the ability to carry forth the genetic abilities of a variety of crop. In order to be assured of a healthy crop, it is important for farmers to be able to access healthy seeds such as F1 Hybrid Chilli Seeds,F1 Hybrid Tomato Seeds, Hot Pepper Seeds, Bottle gourd Seed,Bitter gourd Seed,Sponge gourd Seed etc which are genetically pure and boast of a high germination percentage.
About Seed Multiplication
After manufacturing of the seed, the next important step is to ensure multiplication and distribution of high-quality seeds, as the quality and quantity of agricultural output of an entire country depends on it. This process is carried out by various government as well as private seed manufacturers engaged in hybrid seed production in India.
Seed is one of the cheapest yet most essential agricultural input which is quintessential for sustained agriculture. When a variety of seed is released only a small quantity of the seed is made available with the breeder, which is known as the nucleus seed. The breeder undertakes the process of seed multiplication to produce commercially viable quantities of a seed.
A new or improved variety of seed is not released unless and until enough true seeds have been produced to make it viable commercially. Multiplication of a seed involves the following steps: -
1. Nucleus Seed
2. Breeder Seed
3. Foundation Seed
4. Registered Seed
5. Certified Seed
6. Truthful Seed
- Nucleus Seed
Nucleus Seed is described as the initial amount of a pure seed which has been improved upon or has been developed along the parental lines of a hybrid under the expert guidance of an Evolver. As the name suggests, Nucleus seed is entirely pure and is devoid of any physical deformities or impurities. In order to achieve the pure form, it is developed by the evolver in an isolated environment to make sure there is no contamination from physical or genetic factors. It is important to make sure that the vigour of the parental line is retained in the nucleus seed.
Individual plants which have healthy and vigorous growth are selected from the bulk lot of nucleus right before the onset of flowering. Various easily observable parameters are observed and recorded for each individual plant. Out of these plants, if any specimen inhibits any diseases or do not conform to the desired characteristics, they are immediately removed. Every individual plant is harvested separately. Thereafter the seeds are kept in individual bags having proper labelling.
- Breeders Seed
Known as the progeny of nucleus seed, breeder seed production is usually accomplished in a single stage, but if required due to circumstances such as greater demand or low seed multiplication rate, it can be produced in two different stages. Breeder can be anybody, an individual, a University, Government or a company. There are certain standards that have been set for breeder’s seed in terms of moisture content (less than 12%), physical purity (98% or more) and genetic purity (99% or more). After completion of this stage, seeds are stored in clearly labelled bags with white colour tags.
- Foundation Seed
After completion of the breeder stage, next comes the foundation seed stage. This process can also be completed in two stages with genetic purity of more than 99.5%. These seeds can be produced on seed multiplication farms belonging to state government or Agri universities or other government farms in addition to private seed companies. The purity level of foundation seed is lower than nucleus or breeder seed. After completion of the process, seeds are stored in bags with white labels.
- Registered Seed
NSC (National seeds corporation) offers guidance and technical advice to progressive farmers as well as registered seed growers to produce registered seed from foundation seeds which are genetically pure. In order to ensure the genetic purity, seed certifying agencies conduct regular inspections and field tests. Once completed, the seeds are stored in a bag with purple label.
- Certified Seed
Certified seed is the progeny of foundation or registered seeds. It is known as certified seed because it has been labelled certified by rating agencies as suitable to raise a good crop. Progressive farmers play a major role in its production and ensure adherence to the established practices for seed production. They need to be genetically pure and are stored in bags with blue labels.
- Truthful Seed
These seeds are developed and produced by private seed companies and are sold under labels of Truthful seeds. In order to be able to produce truthful seeds, field and seed standards specified by Seeds Act must be maintained by the companies. Once the process is complete, seeds are stored in bags labelled with green colour tags.
Precautions to be observed during seed multiplication and seed production
Availability of high-quality seeds is essential to make sure excellent harvest at the end of the harvesting season. Here are some of the major precautions that must be observed during seed multiplication and seed production by Indian vegetable seeds companies:
- The process requires heavy investment and high level of technical skills as it is a complicated task. So, this process must be undertaken by those entities who are in a position to commit such resources.
- In order to reap complete benefits of new variety of crops, due care must be paid to ensure genetic purity and quality of seeds i.e. conditions must be standardized.
Due to rising awareness regarding benefits of high-quality seeds, Seed industry is also thriving across the world. Many private as well as public sector companies are working round the clock to develop genetically pure high-quality seeds to ensure a healthy and bountiful crop.
Nurture Agro Seeds is a leading agriculture seeds companies in India and is based out of Bangalore. Nurture Agro Seeds has been catering to the demand of its global clientele for superior quality agricultural inputs. In addition to supplying F1 hybrid seeds such as F1 Hybrid Tomato Seeds, F1 Hybrid watermelon seeds, and many more, Nurture Agro Seeds provides world-class seed multiplication and hybrid seed production services to other companies from around the world.
It has established itself as the prominent seed manufacturers in India. Nurture Agro Seeds deals in more than 90 varieties of 20 different vegetable crops such as cherry tomato seed, bitter gourd seed, okra seed, sponge gourd seed etc.